‘Defense and Security Budgeting in Democratic Countries’

‘A project of the National Security Studies Center, University of Haifa, Israel

Co-author with Dr. Norman A. Bailey, Lecturer, National Security Studies Center, University of Haifa, Israel and David Brodet, Chairman of the Board, Bank Leumi le-Israel

Defense budgeting processes in democratic countries differ not only in size, but in their actual form and rules governing those processes. In some countries they are more strictly bound by rules, while in others they are more decentralized. This study evaluates the potential for misallocation of defense resources, impact on defense effectiveness and overall effect on different countries’ international stance of defense budgetary processes. It considers how the planning functions of budgeting are often modified and reshaped by political considerations, which renders any attempt on the part of the agencies and departments involved to implement policy and process strategies in their particular areas unviable. The analysis makes comparison of three countries – the U.S., the UK and Israel, exploring the specific steps that comprise defense budgeting in each, and drawing conclusions about the contrasts and similarities between them. It determines that in democratic countries, no defense budgeting process remains purely within the realm of national security, but is rather injected with socio-political and socio-economic interests that have repercussions about the appropriate resource allocation to the defense sector.